A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled cyst that usually forms at the wrist or elbow joint and arises from the tissue lining the tendons and joints. The cyst is painless and benign and contains a clear, jelly like fluid. It may increase in size slowly. Though the cyst can occur at any age, it is most common during the 30's and in old age. It is also more common in women than in men.

A muscle cramp is a sudden contraction of one or more of the muscles. The result can be intense pain and an inability to use the affected muscles. In athletes, common causes of leg cramps are overuse, stress and dehydration during sports played in warm weather. Overuse, injury, muscle strain or staying in the same position also may cause cramps.

What is gout?Gout is an excruciatingly painful acute arthritis seen almost exclusively in men above 40 years of age; children and women in reproductive age do not get gouty arthritis. Similarly, it is very uncommon to see gouty arthritis in men below 40 years of age. Gout is often a familial arthritis with history of similar acute attacks in father, uncles, grandfather. It belongs to a major class of arthritis called ‘crystal-deposition arthritis’.

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that commonly affects the lungs, but can affect any part of the body. It develops slowly and can lead to prolonged ill health. Approximately 14 million Indians suffer from this disease. Even today, an Indian dies of tuberculosis every minute.

The uterus bleeds in regular cycles called the menstrual cycles that last for 3-5 days. Menstruation occurs once every month although the cycle may vary from 21-35 days. These cyclical bleeds are triggered by a fall in the oestrogen (female sex hormones) levels in the blood.

Travelling with children can be a pleasure if one makes some extra preparations and planning. It is important to plan a pace that accommodates children without hurrying and including frequent food, beverage, and rest stops so that everyone can enjoy the experience.

Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain. Cocaine was labelled the drug of the 1980s and ‘90s, because of its extensive popularity and use during this period. However, cocaine is not a new drug. In fact, it is one of the oldest known drugs.

Most people suffer from bad breath occasionally. However, if it becomes permanent you should consult your dentist. Bad breath is usually due to the breakdown of proteins by bacteria somewhere in the mouth. However, there are several other possible causes in the airways, oesophagus and stomach that can also lead to bad breath.
Adhesions are pieces of scar tissue, which cause the organs in the abdomen such as the bowel, liver, uterus or fallopian tubes to stick to one another. They most commonly occur after abdominal surgery as a part of the healing process. Adhesions can also form after inflammation of an organ in the abdomen or pelvis e.g., due to infections such as Tuberculosis.

Acne occurs when the oil glands of the skin become plugged. It is more common in people with oily skin. Acne occurs in adolescents and young adults. In acne there are blackheads (the plugs found in blocked-off oil glands), whiteheads (pimples), or red bumps on the face, neck, and shoulders.

Smoking :Cigarette smoking kills nearly about 420,000 people a year, making it more lethal than AIDS, accidents, homicides, suicides, drug overdoses, and fire. Smokers are also inhaling other chemicals including cyanide, benzene, formaldehyde, methanol (wood alcohol), acetylene (the fuel used in torches), and ammonia. Smoke also contains nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide, which are harmful gases.

Abortion is the termination of pregnancy by any method (spontaneous or induced) before the fetus is viable (less than 20 weeks of pregnancy) to survive independently. Out of almost 35 million abortions, which take place annually in the world, more than half of them are illegal and performed by untrained, unskilled personnel under highly unhygienic conditions.

Anorexia nervosa is a lack of appetite or an aversion to food that leads to starvation. It is an illness that usually occurs in teenage girls, but it can also occur in teenage boys and adults. People with anorexia are obsessed with being thin.

Baldness or alopecia results when hair loss occurs at an abnormally high rate, replacement occurs at an abnormally slow rate or when normal hairs are replaced by thinner, shorter ones. It is a permanent type of hair loss and occurs in a characteristic pattern on the scalp. The hair loss begins at the temples and at the top of the head towards the back, causing a receding hairline and a bald spot.

Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix which is a worm like organ in the gut situated just below where the small bowel opens in to the large bowel. It is caused by bacterial infection from the intestinal contents.

Animal Bites : Pets are a common cause of bites, with dog bites occurring most frequently. Cat bites are considered more serious due to the higher incidence of infections associated with them. Stray and wild animals such as bats and monkeys also inflict thousands of bites every year. Bites from wild animals are especially dangerous because of the threat of rabies.

Athlete’s foot is a fungal infection of the foot, and is called so as it is commonly seen in the feet of athletes. There is a red, scaly, cracked rash between the toes along with an unpleasant odour. The rash itches, burns and scratching makes it raw and weepy. It is common in adolescents.

  • What is angioplasty?
  • How to prepare for it?
  • What happens during the procedure?
  • What happens after the procedure?
  • What are the benefits of angioplasty?
  • What are the risks associated with this procedure?

Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) :The brain and the eye work together to produce vision. Light enters the eye and is changed into nerve signals that travel along the optic nerve to the brain. Amblyopia is the medical term used when the vision in one of the eyes is reduced because the eye and the brain are not working together properly.

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative disorder, which destroys brain cells. It leads to a decline in mental function affecting memory, thinking, language and behavior. The disease affects people more than 65 years old. Dementia is a general decline in mental ability and Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause.

Fibromyalgia is a common and chronic problem. The symptoms sometimes improve. At other times, the symptoms may worsen and continue for months or years. The key is seeking professional help which includes a multi-faceted approach to the management and treatment of the disease. There is no proof that fibromyalgia syndrome results in an increased death rate.

Frozen shoulder or adhesive capsulitis is a painful condition in which the shoulder loses its range of movements. This condition is referred to as "frozen shoulder" because it becomes very difficult for a person to move his shoulder. The shoulder is not actually frozen, it is just stiff. It may follow an injury to the shoulder, but may also arise gradually without warning or injury.

A fracture is a break in the bone or cartilage. It may be because of injury or a disease that causes weakening of the bone. It may also be because of abnormal structure of bones since birth.

Diskitis is an inflammation, irritation, and swelling of the intervertebral disk space (the space between the bones of the spine).How is it caused?Diskitis is an uncommon condition, which is usually seen in children younger than age 10 years. It can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection or other inflammatory processes, such as auto-immune diseases (conditions in which the immune system mistakenly attacks certain cells in the body).

Crush syndrome is a condition caused when an excessive force is applied to a group of muscles for a long time. If the injury damages, which damages the muscles very severely, a toxic protein called myoglobin and others like potassium and phosphorus are released in large quantities in the body

 Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common, painful disorder of the wrist and the hand. The condition occurs mostly in women, but may also affect men. Carpal tunnel syndrome becomes worse with excessive use of the wrist, as with repetitive movements in some occupations or athletic activities.

Spondylosis is a disorder that is caused by the degeneration of the discs which are soft cushions, present between the vertebrae. This results in the vertebrae rubbing together and exerting pressure on the nerves. As the condition progresses, the bones may move out of their natural positions, causing pain and disability.

Clubfoot : It is a congenital deformity, i.e. present at birth. It affects the foot and/or ankle. In patients with clubfoot, the bones, joints, blood vessels, and muscles in the foot are formed incorrectly. This results in either mild or severe deformities. Most notable is the `kidney shape' of the foot. It can affect one or both feet, more frequently the left. In about half of the cases, both feet are affected.

Audiometry : It is a method of testing the hearing capacity of an individual. It is used to diagnose the extent of hearing loss in a person suffering from suspected hearing loss, or other disorders of the ear. Earlier, audiometry should only be used with the active cooperation and participation of the patient.

Drugs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of most diseases. They should be taken only on prescription by a registered medical practitioner. By and large, all drugs are potent weapons with a double edge: judicious and appropriate use can give relief, reckless “self-prescription” can be dangerous.

Blood Glucose Test : Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed based on a high level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Blood sugar test, done fasting and 2 hours after breakfast, is used for the diagnosis of diabetes.

Aggresive behaviour in Children : Aggressive behaviour in children is easier to prevent than to eliminate. Lesser the aggressive behaviour a child is exposed to, lesser the likelihood of aggressive behaviour toward others.

Adoption Procedure : Adoption is the permanent placement of a child within a family. The family adopts a child legally through the court and the child as such becomes their natural offspring.The singular most important reason why couples adopt a child is infertility.

AIDS associated tumours : AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) caused by HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) attacks the body's immune system. In AIDS, the body can no longer fight off disease successfully.

Breast-Feeding: There is no doubt that breast milk is the best milk for babies. Not only does it provide maximum emotional satisfaction to both the mother and the child creating a bond between the two, it also has many advantages...

Arthritis : The symptom of pain, swelling, or stiffness with limitation of joint movement is called arthritis. In certain serious types of arthritis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis) the stiffness and limitation of joint movement is especially worse for prolonged periods in the mornings.


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