Speech disorders refer to difficulties in producing speech sounds or problems with voice quality. There may be a problem in the flow of words (stuttering), unclear production of speech, or problem with the volume and pitch of voice. There may also be trouble in using certain speech sounds like substitution of ‘f’ with ‘s’ (lisping). The child may also have the problem of limited speech where he may not talk at all or may have trouble talking in specific situations.

Shyness is felt as a mix of emotions, including fear and interest, tension and pleasantness. There may be an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. Shyness can be a normal, adaptive response to social experience. By being somewhat shy, children can withdraw temporarily and gain a sense of control

Rickets is a disorder in which there is softening and weakening of the bones of children, primarily caused by the lack of vitamin D or calcium and phosphate. It is most likely to occur during periods of rapid growth when the body requires high levels of calcium and phosphate. It is usually seen in young children 6 to 24 months old and is uncommon in newborns.

Poliomyelitis or polio, is an infection caused by the poliovirus leading to nerve damage and muscle paralysis. Transmission of the poliovirus occurs by contact with infected secretions from the nose and throat (airborne), or contact by the faeces (faeco-oral). The virus enters mouth and nose, multiplies in the throat or digestive tract, and spreads through the blood to the rest of the body.

Otitis media, or middle ear infection is a condition which occurs when the eustachian tube becomes swollen as a result of cold, a throat infection, or an allergic reaction causing fluid to accumulate in the middle ear. If this gets infected, it may lead to an inflamed eardrum and a build up of pus and mucous behind the ear drum. At times, the pressure in the middle ear becomes so high that the eardrum bursts, resulting in pus and blood drainage from the ear.

Nosebleed or epistaxis is bleeding from the nose due to damage to the tiny and delicate blood vessels. Nosebleeds can affect all ages, but are twice as common in children as in adults. Nosebleeds occur more frequently in winters when infections are common or in extreme hot conditions. Sometimes bleeding from the nose may occur in patients who have suffered a head injury. In these cases, prompt medical advice must be sought.

Absence of a normal anal opening occurs in about 1 in 5000 births. The diagnosis is apparent shortly after birth by a routine physical examination. The cause of this abnormality is unknown. Babies who have imperforate anus may also have other congenital anomalies.

Children with other health problems may need to avoid certain vaccines or get them later than usual. For example, children with certain types of cancers or problems with their immune systems should not get live virus vaccines like the MMR, varicella (chicken pox), or oral polio vaccines

 Hypospadias is a defect in which urine passes from an opening sited not at the tip of the penis but from somewhere on the under surface of the shaft. This is a common birth defect and occurs in about 1 of 250 male births.


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